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The Sikh gurus adopted proto-Gurmukhī to write the Guru Granth Sahib, the religious scriptures of the Sikhs.
Other contemporary scripts used in the Punjab were Takri and the Laṇḍā scripts.
There are two major theories on how the Proto-Gurmukhī script emerged in the 15th century. Al-Biruni writes that the Ardhanagari script was used in Bathinda and western parts of the Punjab in the 10th century.
Guru Angad is credited in the Sikh tradition with the Gurmukhi script, which is now the standard writing script for Punjabi language in India, This article contains IPA phonetic symbols.
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Later in the 20th century, the script was given the authority as the official script of the Punjab, India while in the Punjab, Pakistan the Persianate Shahmukhi alphabet is still in use.
The word Gurmukhī translates as "from the Mouth of the Guru,".
After 1948, when Himachal Pradesh was established as an administrative unit, the local Takri variants were replaced by Devanagari.
Meanwhile, the mercantile scripts of Punjab known as the Laṇḍā scripts were normally not used for literary purposes.
The usage of Gurmukhī letters in Guru Granth Sahib meant that the script developed its own orthographical rules.
In the following epochs, Gurmukhī became the prime script applied for literary writings of the Sikhs.
For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: IPA.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating