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(Gravitz 2011) Infection with HCV affects more than 180 million people globally.
In 2010, the CDC estimated that 2.7 to 3.9 million persons in the United States were living with HCV. 4 August 17, 2012) A safer blood supply along with safer injection practices among intravenous drug users contributed to a decline in the number of reported cases of HCV from 1999 – 2008. 4 August 17, 2012) “While the incidence of new hepatitis C virus cases has decreased, the prevalence of infection will not peak until the year 2040.
In the medical literature, 100% eradication of the virus from the blood is referred to as a sustained virologic response (SVR).
Very recently, another type of genotype named IL-28B has been identified as a predictor of response to treatment.
It is difficult for the human immune system to eliminate the HCV and it is a major cause of chronic liver disease.
The presence of HCV in the liver initiates a response from the immune system which in turn causes inflammation.
For the readers convenience they are listed here in alphabetical order.
AAFP – American Academy of Family Physicians AASLD – American Association for the Study for Liver Diseases ACG – American College of Gastroenterology AHRQ – Agency for Health Research and Quality CDC – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CLIA – Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act DAA – direct-acting antiviral agent ESRD – end stage renal disease FDA – U. Food and Drug Administration HAV – Hepatitis A virus HBV – Hepatitis B virus HCV – Hepatitis C virus HCC – Hepatocellular carcinoma HIV – Human immunodeficiency virus IDSA – Infectious Disease Society of America IOM – Institute of Medicine MMWR – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report NANBH – non-A, non-B viral Hepatitis NAT – nucleic acid test NCA – National Coverage Analysis NCD – National Coverage Decision PR – pegylated interferon plus ribavirin QALY – quality adjusted life years RR – relative risk SAE – serious adverse events SVR – sustained virologic response USPSTF – United States Preventive Services Task Force Based upon publication of updated HCV screening guidelines by the USPSTF, CMS initiated this national coverage analysis (NCA) to evaluate the existing evidence on HCV screenings for adults.
Inflammation over long periods of time (usually decades) can cause scarring, called cirrhosis.
A cirrhotic liver fails to perform the normal functions of the liver, which leads to liver failure.
§1833(x)(2)(A)(i) (I) is a physician (as described in section 1861(r)(1)) who has a primary specialty designation of family medicine, internal medicine, geriatric medicine, or pediatric medicine; or (II) is a nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, or physician assistant (as those terms are defined in section 1861(aa)(5)); TO: Administrative File: (CAG-00436N) FROM: Tamara Syrek Jensen, JD Acting Director Coverage and Analysis Group Lori Ashby Acting Director Division of Medical and Surgical Services Lori Paserchia, MD Lead Medical Officer Deirdre O'Connor Lead Analyst Division of Medical and Surgical Services SUBJECT: Decision Memorandum for Screening for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Adults DATE: June 2, 2014 The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has determined the following: The evidence is adequate to conclude that screening for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), consistent with the grade B recommendations by the U. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), is reasonable and necessary for the prevention or early detection of an illness or disability and is appropriate for individuals entitled to benefits under Part A or enrolled under Part B, as described below.
§1833(x)(2)(A)(i) (I) is a physician (as described in section 1861(r)(1)) who has a primary specialty designation of family medicine, internal medicine, geriatric medicine, or pediatric medicine; or (II) is a nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, or physician assistant (as those terms are defined in section 1861(aa)(5)); The following acronyms are used throughout this document.
The determination of “high risk for HCV” is identified by the primary care physician or practitioner who assesses the patient's history, which is part of any complete medical history, typically part of an annual wellness visit and considered in the development of a comprehensive prevention plan.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating